It is well known that an electromagnetic field (EMF) is a particular form of matter through which electrically charged particles can interact. Physically, the existence of EMF is due to a time-variant electrical field E giving rise to a magnetic field H, and due to a time-variant magnetic field H giving rise to a curl electric field: both the components E and H are changing constantly and excite each other. The EMF of fixed or uniformly moving charged particles is inextricably entwined with them. When charged particles are accelerated, the EMF is “detached” from them and starts to exist independently as electromagnetic waves which do persist even if their source is turned off (for example, radio waves do not disappear when the antenna emitting them is de-energized).

Electromagnetic fields are characterized by a wavelength ? (lambda). A source that generates the radiation-and, essentially, producing electromagnetic oscillations-is characterized by a frequency f (see Fig. 1).

Extensive research into the effect of electromagnetic fields on the human organism traces back to 60s of the 20th century.

A wide array of clinical evidence has been accumulated for the unfavorable effect of magnetic and electromagnetic fields on the human body. Some medical doctors proposed a new nosological name: radiowave sickness or microwave sickness. Later on, researchers from Russia and other countries found out, first, that the human nervous system is particularly sensitive to EMF, and second, that EMF can exert a so-called information effect on humans if the intensity of the EMF is lower than a thermal effect threshold. It is generally agreed that the nonthermal or information effect is induced at a relatively low level of EMF (for example, for radio frequencies higher than 300 MHz, this level is lower than 1 mWatt/cm2).

EMF can exert various kinds of influence on biological objects including humans: continuous and intermittent, general and local, multiple from several sources and combined with other unfavorable environmental factors, etc.

The biological response depends on the following parameters of EMF:
•Signal Modulation
•Frequency Combinations
•Rate of Exposure
The nervous system is one of the most EMF-sensitive systems in the human organism. EMF of low intensity can cause malfunctions in a nervous cell, in a synapse (a structure responsible for transmitting nervous impulses), or in other particular nervous structures. Persons who are in contact with EMF can experience changes in their higher nervous activity and memory. Also, such persons have a disposition to develop stress reactions. Some structures of the cerebrum are highly sensitive to EMF. Under the influence of EMF the pituitary-adrenal system is stimulated, increasing the content of adrenalin in blood and activating the blood coagulation processes. The hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenals system is recognized one of the systems which have an early involvement in the human organism’s natural response to environmental factors.

The nervous system of a human embryo is particularly sensitive to EMF. Also, ample evidence shows that EMF can exert a negative effect on the immunologic reactivity of the human organism. The results of investigations suggest that under the influence of EMF, immunogenesis processes are impaired and depressed. Besides, it was found that in animals exposed to EMF, the development of an infectious process is aggravated. Autoimmunity is thought to be related to a pathology of the immune system rather than to some changes in the antigenic tissue structure. As a result, the immune system manifests itself as an antagonist to normal tissue antigens. An impairment of the sexual function in turn is usually related to changes in its regulation by the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. Also, repeated exposure to EMF depresses the activity of the pituitary gland. It is known that exposing a pregnant woman to EMF can cause congenital malformations in children. A fetus is most vulnerable at early pregnancy periods corresponding to the implantation stage and the early organogenesis stage.

When an organism is exposed to EMF for many years, the biological effect of EMF can accumulate, sometimes causing remote consequences, including degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, and hormonal and oncologic diseases.

In recent years there has been evidence that EMF can trigger the so-called resonance effects in biological objects and that certain forms of modulation of EMF can be of importance in bioeffects. It was found that there are the so-called frequency and amplitude windows, which have a high biological activity at the cellular level as well as at the level of the central nervous system and the immune system. Also, there is evidence that people give an inadequate pathological response to modulated EMF.

Cellular communication systems are an example of how EMF can affect the human organism.

The cellular radiotelephony is now one of the most intensively developing telecommunication systems. At the moment more than 800 million people worldwide use this kind of mobile communication. And the number of active users increases each year.

The main components of a cellular communication system include: base stations (BS) and mobile radiotelephones (MRT). Base stations communicate with mobile radiotelephones, and so both the BSs and the MRTs are sources of electromagnetic radiation in the UHF (ultrahigh frequencies) range.

Base stations radiate an electromagnetic energy in the range from 463 to 1880 MHz, depending on a communication standard.

A mobile radiotelephone is a miniature radio transmitter. Transmission is performed in the frequency range from 453 to 1785 MHz, depending on a product standard. The power of the radiation emitted by a mobile radiotelephone is a variable and to a much degree depends on the state of the communication channel “mobile-radiotelephone/base- station”-that is, the higher the level of the BS’s signal at the site of signal reception, the lower the power of the MRT’s radiation. The maximal power ranges between 0.125 and 1 Watt; however, in reality it usually does not exceed 0.05-0.2 Watt.

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by a mobile telephone is received not only by the base station receiver but also by the user’s body-primarily the user’s head. When one talks by a mobile telephone, changes in the bioelectric activity of his brain are so considerable that they can be called a local electromagnetic storm. Figure 2 shows the changes in the spectrum of the human electroencephalogram before and during a talk by a mobile telephone (figures a and b respectively).

According to statistical data:
•to restore the resources the human organism spends on a talk by a mobile telephone, it takes as many as ten times more time, as a minimum, than the talk itself
•talking by a mobile telephone more than 2-3 hours a week causes functional changes in the human organism
•using a PC monitor for a long time every day during 6-8 years can lead to a pathological impairment of the vision, the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the immune system

Over many years, attempts have been made to create screens and devices to reduce the negative effect of man-caused electromagnetic fields. However, no real protection of the user from the electromagnetic radiation emitted by household appliances, computer equipment, and radiotelephones, to say nothing of more intense kinds of man-caused radiation, has been created to the present day.

The spectral characteristic of the bioelectrical activity of the human brain: before a talk by a mobile telephone (a), during a talk (b), and during a talk by a mobile telephone with the Aires Neutralizer applied to it (c).

All the aforesaid was the reason for developing the Aires Electromagnetic Abnormalities Neutralizer.

According to the theoretical and experimental research conducted by G. Melnikov, head of the Laboratory for Fractal Optics of the Vavilov State Optical Institute, the Aires Neutralizer is a passive fractal-matrix resonator which is a universal spatial-wave Fourier filter capable of analyzing oscillations of any kind of electromagnetic field (background, man-caused, biological, etc.) into harmonic components. The underlying active structure of the Aires Neutralizer is a passive fractal-matrix resonator made on a crystalline silicon wafer. The width of the line used in the fractal topology is about one µ, which enhances, by several orders of magnitude, the efficiency of the resonance interaction occurring in the area where electromagnetic oscillations are generated.

A variant of a fractal filter, and the spatial-wave structure that is produced by a beam of electromagnetic energy transmitted through it.

An electromagnetic pulse passing through the matrix filter activates a special fractal field-a “quantum crystal”-producing a phenomenon of diffraction in a transmitted reflected flux. As a result, a more harmonious and ordered background space is generated in the active area. Thus the passive interaction between a man-caused electromagnetic background and the matrix Neutralizer scheme makes it possible to efficiently correct field abnormalities and to improve structural characteristics of space over a wide spectral range.

At the department of electron-ion and vacuum technology, the department of microelectronics, and the department of microradioelectronics and technology of radio equipment of the St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Russia, an investigation into a technique for ion magnetron sputtering of submicron copper films on silicon substrates with the use of the fractal matrix Aires Neutralizers was undertaken. The technique for magnetron sputtering-which employs the effect of emission of neutral atoms from the surface of a cathode that is bombarded by an ion flux generated in the plasma of a working gas discharge produced in a diode ion sputtering system in a flux of spirally moving electrons and under the action of the cyclotron effect that is provided by a system of permanent magnets-allows a film to grow on the substrate as a near ideal replica of its structure.

The experimental investigation was conducted with the use of a magnetron sputtering installation based on a standard vacuum plant ???-4.

Optically polished silicon wafers, type 76 ??? 7.5 and orientation <100>, were used as subjects under investigation. The Aires Neutralizers of electromagnetic radiation were used as fractal matrix resonators. The latter are built around a silicon chip (microcircuit) AIRES01, AIRES02, or AIRES03 (?? 6339 029 07598199 2001) manufactured by the Angstrem Corp. with the Aires technology. The microcircuit presents a silicon crystal of size 7.5×7.5 mm, and bears fractal matrix topology which is a geometrically synthesized artificial hologram consisting of lines of size, as of now, 1.0 µ.

The following results were obtained in the experimental investigation: the films produced with the use of the neutralizers had a well-defined and varied cluster-like structure.

At the periphery of a sample, circular structures were noted to form. When moving from the periphery toward the center of a wafer, the circular structures were noted to increase in diameter, and a gradation of elements from small to larger ones was observed. In the area of the central spot, there were large circular structures whose walls in some cases were as high as several microns. It should be pointed out that circular formations localized in the central spot were of a considerably more complicate structure than those in the peripheral zone. In the internal space of the elements localized in the central zone, germinal grains were found, arranged like a matrix. Outside these large circular structures, circular elements of varying diameter were observed, both isolated ones and those interweaving in a complicate structure. The general picture was a complex fractal structure consisting of several levels of self-organization and self-similarity.

When increasing the time of sputtering, and consequently the width of the film, small circular elements picturing a fractal structure emerged. Thus large circles were surrounded by smaller ones which in turn form a certain ordered circular structure, and so on.

When moving from the edge to the center, a level gradation of the fractal object was clearly visible owing to the large width of the film. Besides the planar geometry described above, all of the elements had a dome-shaped structure. Among them, such constructions as three-, four-, and six-sided cut “quasipyramids” were seen, surrounded by similar smaller structures.

The investigations that demonstrated the efficiency of the Aires Neutralizer were carried out by Doctor of Biological Sciences S. V. Zenin at the Clinical Experimental Research Center for Traditional Methods of Medical Diagnostics and Treatment. The experiments conducted under the guide of V. I. Slesarev, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor of the St. Petersburg State Academy named after I. I. Mechnikov, revealed that by structuring a background electromagnetic field, the fractal “quantum crystals” can change the physical and chemical properties of water.

Interest in ordinary water derives from its biological importance and valuable structural and information properties. It is well known that the human organism consists of water by 62 per cent, which in turn are involved in every biochemical reaction occurring in the organism. Of course, the quality of water clusters is of crucial importance in the synthesis of adequate biomolecular compounds which are essential for the vital activity of humans.

Water is an open, dynamic and structurally-complex system. Its stationary state is easily disturbed by any outside action, causing the system to pass into a transition state characterized primarily by a change in the structural-information property of water. Due to self-organization, the system can either resume its original state or pass into another stationary state. Energetically, all possible states of molecules in pure water are virtually indistinguishable, because the differences do not exceed the value of the energy of the thermal (Brownian) motion of water molecules and their associates. This is indirectly evidenced by high dynamic properties of H2O molecules in liquid water. The entropy factor is important in characterizing the “unstructured” part of water because of great disorder in the movement and interaction of its molecules and their associates. And the information factor matters in characterizing the “structured” part of water because of some organization in the structure of water clusters as well as in their movements and exchanges of water molecules. The notion “information” is considered as a measure of organization of the movement (interaction and migration) of particles in a system.

The structure-information property of water is an ability of water molecules to form clusters whose structure encodes information about interactions which have occurred or are occurring in a given sample of water.

The structure of clusters is noteworthy. One of the elementary cells of water clusters is a tetrahedron involving four or five H2O molecules which are bound by hydrogen bonds (a volume-centered tetrahedron). Each of water molecules in a simple tetrahedron retains an ability to from hydrogen bonds. By these bonds, simple tetrahedrons can combine through their vertices, edges, and sides to form various clusters of a complex structure which can contain voids. Water clusters can be structurally similar to crystals of carbon, silicon or their compounds, because the H2O molecule is able to form four hydrogen bonds, while the above elements four covalent bonds. So the structure of water clusters can be similar to the structure of diamond, graphite, fulleren, and various silicate-anions. Thus the crystalline lattice of ordinary ice (lh), much like graphite, has a hexagonal structure, while ice (1c), much like diamond, has a cubical structure. In both the cases the crystalline lattice is made up of tetrahedrons.

According to quantum-chemical calculations, in water clusters a proton (H+) can migrate, by a forwarding mechanism, between the oxygen atom and the hydrogen atoms due to the interaction between covalent bonds and hydrogen ones, which leads to a delocalization of the proton within the cluster. This suggests that water clusters can be considered as polyproton systems. The proton delocalization contributes to the stability of the cluster, so the enlargement of clusters will increase their stability-however, not to infinity, but to some critical dimensions. According to the available data, such clusters can include from 50 to 1000 water molecules, depending on the cluster structure. Under the effect of the thermal motion, large clusters can dissociate into smaller ones. The latter, acting as germs, can spontaneously combine into larger clusters, replicating the structure of the maternal one. Besides clusters of critical dimensions, there are smaller clusters in the system at any time, whose lifetime is shorter. Both large clusters and small ones in the “structured” water are constantly exchanging water molecules with the “unstructured” water-that’s why they are called “twinkling clusters.”

Thus, water receives information communicated by various outside actions. In doing this, water encodes information by means of the structure of clusters forming at the moment, and changes the values of its structure-information index. Because clusters now form, now dissociate, ordinary water always contains an average statistical quantity of clusters of varying structure, no one of them prevailing. In the “structured” water, the content of clusters having a structure determined by an outside structuring action is increased.

Aside from structure-information properties, water features the following peculiarities: Because of high polarity of water molecules, and extreme unsteadiness of transitions between water states, liquid and vaporous water is a source of superweak, and sometimes weak, electromagnetic radiation which is variable in intensity, direction, and frequency. The movement of water molecules between different states, such as single molecules, random associates, and clusters, serves as an oscillator of water radiation. “Structured” water, i.e., twinkling clusters, generates the least chaotic electromagnetic radiation. At present, this kind of radiation is registered, recorded, and used as an information field which is generated by twinkling water clusters. The characteristics of this radiation primarily depend on the structure and dimensions of clusters of “structured” water. However, the parameters of “unstructured” water do also affect this radiation.

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by water induces an electromagnetic field in the surrounding liquid and vaporous water, which gives rise to the formation and growth of water clusters with structure-information properties similar to those of the induction source. It is this phenomenon that causes the structuring of water when in contact with insoluble materials or EMF. In the first case, the induction source is the structured water layer that is on the surface of a material, and in the second case, it is, for example, the hydrate shell of a medical preparation, or the “structured” water of living systems.

The structure-information property of pure water and water systems are affected by phase transitions in water, temperature and pressure (especially at supercritical values), acoustic oscillations, and electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic factors.

According to investigations conducted by S. V. Zenin, the conductivity of water is drastically affected under the influence of the radiation emitted by a computer or a radiotelephone, which points to some kind of breaking of the structure of water. With the Aires Neutralizer, a considerable compensation (by a factor of five and more times) of the effect of a monitor or radiotelephone on the water conductivity can be observed.

In addition, investigations into the effect of an electromagnetic radiation source on the structure of the human encephalogram were carried out in the Pavlov Physiology Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the St. Petersburg Municipal Hospital #20.

The bioelectric activity of the human brain presents an aggregate activity of nervous cells, nervous pathways, and the surrounding cells-but mostly the postsynaptic potentials. A synapse is a spot where information is transmitted from one cell to another. While interacting between one another, nervous elements each moment generate a certain pattern of electric oscillations that are produced at different points on the surface of the brain. These oscillations have a very low amplitude-of several tens of microvolt. The relationship between variations in the microelectric oscillations of the brain and variations in the internal and external medium of the human organism has long been established. As early as works by V. V. Pravdich-Neminsky (1925), the human brain was considered as not only emitter of electromagnetic oscillations, but a device which is sensitive to even minimal changes in a background electromagnetic field, and responds to these changes by shifts in its own activity.

In the bioelectric activity investigations, a 900/1800 MHz GSM-standard mobile telephone was used as a source of alternating EMF.

The main results of the investigations are shown in figures 2, 3, 4 and 5.

As was noted above, using a radiotelephone changes markedly the structure of the bioelectric activity of the human brain, causing a shift toward increasing high-frequency rhythms. This kind of changes are indicative of an intensification of activation processes in the human brain. Besides, the rhythms distribution pattern is disturbed. All this can lead to a disorganization of the activity of the entire brain.

Figure 2 shows the original distribution of amplitudes of bioelectrical activity waves of a volunteer’s brain, top figure (a). The volunteer exhibits a rather balanced pattern of bioelectric activity. However, even in such a balanced pattern, turning on a radiotelephone markedly disturbs the original rhythms distribution. This state persists for a long time, middle figure b. The use of the neutralizer during a talk by the radiotelephone helps to restore the picture of distribution of bioelectrical activity wave amplitudes in the volunteer’s brain closely to the original pattern, bottom figure (c).

Figure 3 shows both the aggregate rhythmotopogram and the rhythms power distribution over different ranges before a start of an examination of another volunteer.

Distribution of encephalographic rhythms power: aggregate distribution, right, and range distribution, left.

When turning on a radiotelephone, a pronounced asymmetry was noted in the distribution of the volunteer’s brain waves in the delta-, alpha-, and beta-ranges, which was represented by the volunteer’s aggregate rhythmotopogram (see Figure 4). When the Aires Neutralizer was applied to the electromagnetic radiation source, the original pattern of distribution of the volunteer’s bioelectric activity brain rhythms power was noted to restore virtually completely (Figure 5).

According to psychological testing, the use of the Aires Neutralizer helped not only to compensate the negative effect of a radiotelephone, but also to considerably normalize the general functional state of a volunteer.

Based on the above results, an attempt was made to neutralize “internal electromagnetic abnormalities” that occur when the brain functioning is disturbed in the case of a cerebral infarction. To treat patients, the Aires Neutralizers were applied to the frontal area of the head through the central line, to the articulation between the frontal and temporal bones on both the sides, and to the area of the mastoid processes of the temporal bone (behind the ears) on both the sides. The favorable effect of the Aires Neutralizer was noted as soon as in 30-40 minutes, which could be judged by the clinical state of the patients: partial restoration of speech, control of headaches, and a decrease of intracranial pressure were noted.